Typhoon heads for Japanese volcano

23 08 2015

Typhoon Goni, which was located just east of Taiwan on Sunday morning, is expected to track across the western side of Kyushu Island in SW Japan through Monday.  There is a risk it could bring up to 200mm of rainfall in 24 hours across Kyushu, leading to a risk of flooding and landslides along with the threat of Hurricane Force winds and a storm surge.  This comes as the Japanese Meteorological Agency issues a level 4 alert for a major volcanic eruption on Mount Sakurajima.

Mount Sakurajima is one of 16 ‘Decade Volcano’ around the globe, meaning that it is a potentially destructive volcano close to populated areas. The level of alert suggests that the local population should prepare for evacuation, which would be made more difficult by a Typhoon impact.

Satellite image courtesy of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Satellite image courtesy of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Typhoon Goni has already bought heavy rainfall and Typhoon strength winds across the NE tip of Luzon in the northern Philippines.  Goni is expected to remain a Strong Typhoon (equivalent of a Category 2 Hurricane) with sustained winds of 80 knots and gusts to 115 knots, tracking steadily north through the rest of Sunday and Monday across the eastern East China Sea.  There is a risk of a storm surge and coastal flooding up through Kagoshima Bay in southern Kyushu.

Once Goni passes across western Japan, it is likely to lose its tropical characteristics, but could still bring flooding rains to the Korean Peninsula on Tuesday.

 





Taiwan preparing for violent Typhoon

4 08 2015

A Typhoon is expected to bring flooding to parts of Taiwan and eastern China later this week with 500-700mm of rain forecast. Typhoon Soudelor is at the moment moving through the northwestern Pacific Ocean and looks likely to track across central Taiwan on Friday before making landfall over eastern China as it weakens.

This is a violent typhoon and is presently 500 miles to the west of the Northern Mariana Islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean and is moving towards Taiwan. Currently surface wind speeds are estimated to be 130 mph with gusts of 190 mph, although these speeds are likely to ease slightly before reaching Taiwan.

Picture courtesy of Japanese Meteorological Agency

Picture courtesy of Japanese Meteorological Agency

This storm brings the threat of a storm surge and high waves to coastal areas of Taiwan and the southern Ryukyu Islands by Friday, as well as very strong winds quite widely, including to the capital of Taiwan, Taipei. Torrential rain is also expected which will bring a risk of significant flooding with the potential for 500-700mm rain falling in some areas in a 24 hour period.

The exact track of the storm could change over the coming days; you can see the latest track of Typhoon Soudelor through Storm Tracker and by following @metofficestorms on Twitter.





Typhoon Nangka makes landfall over Japan

16 07 2015

In our blogs of 9 July and 13 July we described how the developing El Niño and a cyclical phenomenon known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation have combined to produce a period of high tropical cyclone activity in the Pacific. Nine storms developed inside two weeks – Linfa, Chan-hom, Raquel, Nangka, Ela, Halola, Iune, Dolores and Enrique. This is the highest number of Pacific tropical cyclones to form inside a two week period since 1968.

Typhoon Nangka on 16 July 2015. Image courtesy of The US Naval Research Laboratory.

Typhoon Nangka on 16 July 2015. Image courtesy of The US Naval Research Laboratory.

Typhoon Nangka formed almost two weeks ago close to the International Dateline and made a steady westward journey peaking in strength with winds of near 150 mph. It then turned north and started to weaken, but is now making landfall over southern Japan, still at typhoon strength.

Japan can sometimes receive several typhoon strikes in a season, but each time they bring much disruption and some destruction through a combination of wind, surge and rainfall. It is often the rainfall that can be most devastating as the typhoon draws huge amounts of moisture from the warm tropical ocean and deposits it over land.

Kamikitayama in southern Honshu has recorded 438.5 mm (17.3”) rain in a period of 24 hours and this is before the eye of Typhoon Nangka has even made landfall. It is possible that some locations could record over 600 mm of rain by the time the typhoon has passed. To put that into context, that’s more than the yearly rainfall for some parts of east England.

Typhoon Nangka Radar Image at 1255 (UK time) 16 July 2015 showing rainfall intensity. Image courtesy of The Japan Meteorological Agency.

Typhoon Nangka Radar Image at 1255 (UK time) 16 July 2015 showing rainfall intensity. Image courtesy of The Japan Meteorological Agency.

As Nangka crosses the islands of Shikoku and Honshu it is expected to weaken, but continue to produce heavy rain. Once over the Sea of Japan, Nangka is likely to make a rightwards turn and so could affect parts of northern Japan before finally dissipating.

Official warnings for the latest tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific are produced by the Japan Meteorological Agency. The Met Office routinely supplies predictions of cyclone tracks from its global forecast model to regional meteorological centres worldwide, which are used along with guidance from other models in the production of forecasts and guidance. We also provide updates on current tropical storms via @metofficestorms on Twitter.





Multiple tropical cyclones in the Pacific

9 07 2015

The Pacific Ocean has seen a lot of early season tropical cyclone activity with a total of 11 cyclones forming before the end of June. This included some intense systems such as typhoons Higos, Maysak, Noul and Dolphin in the west Pacific and hurricanes Andres and Blanca in the east Pacific.

After a brief respite, early July has seen the development of further tropical cyclones across the Pacific Ocean triggered by a cyclical phenomenon known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The MJO is a pulse of cloud and rain which works its way eastwards around the globe in tropical regions. It often is seen to start in the Indian Ocean before crossing into the Pacific Ocean and occurs on a timescale of 30 to 60 days. The magnitude of the MJO will vary, but the event which moved into the western Pacific early in July has been very strong. A strong MJO produces conditions which are very conducive for tropical cyclone formation.

At the start of the month, the MJO event resulted firstly in the spinning up of twin cyclones – storms either side of the equator at the same longitude. Chan-hom formed in the north Pacific, whilst Raquel developed south of the equator. Raquel brought unseasonal heavy rain to the Solomon Islands before dissipating.

Left to right - Typhoons Linfa, Chan-hom and Nangka on 9 July 2015. Image courtesy of The National Institute of Informatics.

Left to right – Typhoons Linfa, Chan-hom and Nangka on 9 July 2015.
Image courtesy of The National Institute of Informatics.

Chan-hom has continued to develop into a typhoon and has been joined by Typhoon Linfa to the west and Typhoon Nangka to the east as seen in the satellite image.

Linfa has just made landfall over southern China and is expected to bring stormy conditions to Hong Kong in the next day or so. Chan-hom is expected to pass close to the Japanese island of Okinawa before making landfall over eastern China. Nangka is currently over open ocean, but could affect south-western Japan in a few days time.

The tropical cyclone activity does not end there, however. As the MJO event moves east it is set to trigger more tropical cyclones in the central and eastern Pacific. Tropical Storm Ela has already formed and is set to pass just north of Hawaii in the next few days. There is also the indication from computer forecast models that one or two more tropical cyclones could develop in the eastern side of the Pacific in the next week.

The strong westerly winds associated with the latest MJO event are helping to enhance the developing El Niño by pushing warm waters in the western Pacific towards the east. A strong El Niño tends to promote tropical cyclone activity in the Pacific whilst suppressing it in the Atlantic.

Conditions are very unfavourable for the development of tropical cyclones in the Atlantic at present and we expect this to continue for much of the season. However, whilst activity is expected to be below average, this does not exclude the possible development of a few hurricanes in this region during the remainder of the year. Meanwhile, the Pacific is expected to see continued above average levels of tropical cyclone activity.

Official warnings for the latest tropical cyclones are produced by the Japan Meteorological Agency and the Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The Met Office routinely supplies predictions of cyclone tracks from its global forecast model to regional meteorological centres worldwide, which are used along with guidance from other models in the production of forecasts and guidance. We also provide updates on current tropical storms via @metofficestorms on Twitter.





Active tropical storm season in the Northwest Pacific as another typhoon heads for the Philippines

7 05 2015

Typhoon Noul is currently to the east of the Philippines in the Northwest Pacific, and is heading steadily west-northwest. Noul is expected to continue moving towards the Philippines whilst intensifying further to a very strong typhoon. The storm is expected to make landfall in the Philippines this weekend.

Noul pacific sat pic

There is still some uncertainty in the exact track, but currently Noul looks likely to make landfall on the east coast of Luzon, bringing very strong winds with gusts of 130kt (150mph), coastal and inland flooding with total rainfall accumulations of up to 400mm possible, and potential landslides across large parts of northern Luzon. There is also a risk of significant impacts in Manila if Noul takes a slightly more southerly track.

Track from Japan Meteorological Agency

Track from Japan Meteorological Agency

Although the typhoon is expected to weaken next week, Noul could also bring some heavy rain to parts of Japan.

This is the sixth tropical storm of the north-west Pacific season and the fourth to become a typhoon, which is an unusual level of activity so early in the season. And yet another tropical storm looks set to develop behind Noul, possibly following a similar path.

The Met Office works closely with counterparts at the Philippines weather service PAGASA, providing the latest information on computer model predictions of the likely track and intensity of Typhoon Noul as it nears the country.

Official warnings of west Pacific tropical storms are produced by the Japan Meteorological Agency. The Met Office routinely supplies predictions of cyclone tracks from its global forecast model to regional meteorological centres worldwide, which are used along with guidance from other models in the production of forecasts and guidance.

Met Office StormTracker provides a mapped picture of tropical cyclones around the globe with access to track history and six-day forecast tracks for current tropical cyclones from the Met Office global forecast model and latest observed cloud cover and sea surface temperature. We also provide updates on current tropical storms via @metofficestorms on Twitter.





Powerful super-typhoon heads for Philippines

1 04 2015

There is currently a super typhoon in the western North Pacific called Maysak. This is a particularly strong storm for the time of year with winds in excess of 160 mph. The strongest storms in this region usually occur between August and October. Tropical storms, including typhoons, are reliant on sea surface temperatures for their energy, and as the northern hemisphere has just moved from winter to spring, this is the coldest time of year for sea temperatures. However, in the region where Typhoon Maysak formed just north of the equator, sea temperatures are almost always above 26°C, which is the critical value for tropical storm formation. Furthermore, the sea temperatures are unusually warm in this area by more than 2°C.

Super Typhoon Maysak is the fourth tropical storm of the season in the western North Pacific, the others being Mekkhala, Higos and Bavi. There has not been a year with four or more tropical storms in this region forming before the end of March since 1965. Three of the four storms have been typhoons – only Bavi remained below the 74mph threshold (the sustained wind speed required to become a typhoon). There have never been as many typhoons before the end of March in the era of reliable records (since World War II). Maysak was also the strongest typhoon to develop in March in this region since Mitag in 2002.

Typhoon Maysak as seen from the MTSAT satellite on 1 April 2015 Image courtesy of digital-typhoon.org

Typhoon Maysak as seen from the MTSAT satellite on 1 April 2015
Image courtesy of digital-typhoon.org

Maysak has now started to weaken as it moves west-northwest towards the Philippines. However, Maysak is still likely to be a typhoon when it makes landfall this weekend. There is still some uncertainty over the exact track of the storm, but the most probable path suggests the Philippines’ northern island, Luzon, is most at risk – including the capital Manila. Wind damage and flooding are likely, particularly in coastal areas.

Typhoon Maysak on 1 April 2015. Image courtesy of the US Naval Research Laboratory

Typhoon Maysak on 1 April 2015.
Image courtesy of the US Naval Research Laboratory

The Eye of the Storm

Air sinks at the centre of a typhoon, resulting in the formation of an ‘eye’ which is sometimes free of cloud and mostly calm. However, on occasions small scale rotations can develop within the eye causing distinctive ‘mesovortices’ (small scale columns of rotating air) in the low level cloud pattern. These can be seen in this satellite loop of Typhoon Maysak created by the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies at the University of Wisconsin:

http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/MAYSAK_H8VIS_064_31March_end0600_fast.gif

The Met Office works closely with counterparts at the Philippines weather service PAGASA, providing the latest information on computer model predictions of the likely track and intensity of Typhoon Maysak as it nears the country.

Official warnings of west Pacific tropical storms are produced by the Japan Meteorological Agency. The Met Office routinely supplies predictions of cyclone tracks from its global forecast model to regional meteorological centres worldwide, which are used along with guidance from other models in the production of forecasts and guidance.

Met Office StormTracker provides a mapped picture of tropical cyclones around the globe, with access to track history and six-day forecast tracks for current tropical cyclones from the Met Office global forecast model, as well as the latest observed cloud cover and sea surface temperature. We also provide updates on current tropical storms via @metofficestorms on Twitter.





Typhoon Hagupit threatens the Philippines

4 12 2014

The typhoon season in the western North Pacific usually peaks in September and October. However, late season typhoons are not rare and this year Typhoon Hagupit has formed in December and poses a threat to the Philippines.

Hagupit developed in the open waters of the western Pacific becoming a tropical storm on 1 December. As it strengthened into a typhoon, it passed south of the Yap Islands and north of the island of Palau. In the last day, it has intensified rapidly and Typhoon Hagupit now has winds averaged over one minute of near 180 mph.

Typhoon Hagupit seen on 4 December 2014 Image courtesy of Naval Research Laboratory

Typhoon Hagupit seen on 4 December 2014
Image courtesy of Naval Research Laboratory

With the effects of Typhoon Haiyan in November 2013 still fresh in the memory there is obvious concern of a possible repeat as Hagupit moves towards the Philippines. However, unlike for Haiyan, there is much more uncertainty as to the precise track and intensity of the typhoon in the coming few days.

One possible scenario is that Hagupit continues moving westwards and makes landfall on Saturday as a strong typhoon in a similar location to Typhoon Haiyan in 2013. Another scenario suggests that Hagupit will slow and make a slight turn north, but still makes landfall over the Central Philippines on Sunday. Yet another scenario predicts a marked turn northwards with the eye of the typhoon staying offshore altogether.

At this stage, the latter scenario seems the least likely outcome. Thus landfall somewhere over the Central Philippines seems likely to happen at some stage during the weekend. Below is the projected track of the storm from the Japan Meteorological Agency.

Forecast track of Typhoon Hagupit from the Japan Meteorological Agency

Forecast track of Typhoon Hagupit from the Japan Meteorological Agency

As ever with tropical cyclones, there are multiple hazards associated with landfall. With winds expected to remain well above 100 mph for the time being, there is the potential for significant structural damage if Hagupit makes landfall. Storm surge was a major hazard associated with Typhoon Haiyan and depending on the precise track of the storm could be again with Typhoon Hagupit. This would threaten coastal communities with flooding to the depth of several metres. One additional hazard which needs to be considered is heavy rain. If Hagupit reduces its speed of motion it could take a long time to cross the Philippines which would increase the threat from heavy rain, flooding and landslides.

In the last couple of years the Met Office has been working with the Philippines weather service PAGASA to help improve its weather forecasting capabilities with a particular emphasis on tropical cyclones, which are a regular threat to the country. In the last few days, our meteorologists have been providing advice on the latest predictions of the track and intensity and likely impacts of Typhoon Hagupit to counterparts in PAGASA.

Official warnings of west Pacific tropical storms are produced by the Japan Meteorological Agency. The Met Office routinely supplies predictions of cyclone tracks from its global forecast model to regional meteorological centres worldwide, which are used along with guidance from other models in the production of forecasts and guidance.

Met Office StormTracker provides a mapped picture of tropical cyclones around the globe with access to track history and six-day forecast tracks for current tropical cyclones from the Met Office global forecast model and latest observed cloud cover and sea surface temperature. We also provide updates on current tropical storms via @metofficestorms on Twitter.





Japan and India Braced for Tropical Cyclones

9 10 2014

Last weekend Typhoon Phanfone brought strong winds and heavy rain to many parts of Japan causing damage and disruption to travel. Japan is now preparing for another typhoon which could be just as disruptive, if not more so.

Typhoon Vongfong has been gathering strength and moving slowly across the western Pacific all week and has become the strongest tropical cyclone to have occurred anywhere in the world since the devastating Typhoon Haiyan which struck the Philippines last November. At its peak Vongfong was estimated to have sustained winds near 180 mph and a central pressure of 900 mb.

Forecasts for Typhoon Vongfong have been very consistent and predict that it will firstly cross some of the Ryukyu Islands of Japan at the weekend. The typhoon will then turn north-eastwards and cross Japan’s main islands at the beginning of next week starting with Kyushu in the south-west. At that time Vongfong is likely to be weaker than at present, but still expected to be a typhoon bringing strong winds and heavy rain and likely to cause disruption.

Typhoon Vongfong seen on 8 October 2014

Typhoon Vongfong seen on 8 October 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Meanwhile, in the Bay of Bengal Tropical Storm Hudhud has formed and threatens India at the weekend. Exactly a year ago intense Cyclone Phailin formed in a similar location and took a similar track that Tropical Storm Hudhud is expected to take. Hudhud (an Omani name for a type of bird) is expected to make landfall on the Indian coast early on Sunday and bring stormy conditions to both Andhra Pradesh and Odisha states. By that time it is expected to have developed into a fully blown ‘cyclone’ – equivalent to a typhoon or hurricane.

Tropical Storm Hudhud seen on 9 October 2014 Image courtesy of the India Meteorological Department

Tropical Storm Hudhud seen on 9 October 2014
Image courtesy of the India Meteorological Department

 

Official warnings of west Pacific tropical storms are produced by the Japan Meteological Agency and north Indian Ocean warnings are produced by the India Meteorological Department. The Met Office routinely supplies predictions of cyclone tracks from its global forecast model to regional meteorological centres worldwide, which are used along with guidance from other models in the production of forecasts and guidance.

Met Office StormTracker provides a mapped picture of tropical cyclones around the globe with access to track history and six-day forecast tracks for current tropical cyclones from the Met Office global forecast model and latest observed cloud cover and sea surface temperature. We also provide updates on current tropical storms via @metofficestorms on Twitter.





Typhoon Phanfone heading for Japan

3 10 2014

October is usually one of the most active months for tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific. These storms can affect many countries with Pacific coasts including the Philippines, China, Korea and Japan. In 2013 there were eight tropical cyclones in this region in October, most of which developed into strong typhoons.

In recent days Typhoon Phanfone has been developing in the western Pacific. Although initially far from land it has been taking a north-westward track as it has intensified and poses a threat for Japan at the weekend. On 2nd October winds were estimated at over 130 mph near the very small ‘pinhole’ eye seen in the satellite image. Phanfone has been maintaining strength since then, but the main threat comes from rain as the typhoon moves further north.

Typhoon Phanfone seen on 2 october 2014 Image courtesy of the Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey

Typhoon Phanfone seen on 2 october 2014
Image courtesy of the Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey

Typhoon Phanfone poses a threat to the Japanese Grand Prix on Sunday at Suzuka, although there is still some uncertainty as to the timing of impacts over Japan. The eye of the typhoon may come ashore or pass just offshore some hours after the scheduled completion of the race.
However, typhoons in this region are renowned for producing large plumes of heavy rain which can propagate well to the north and east of the centre of the typhoon itself. Hence, heavy rain over southern Japan is likely even if the eye keeps offshore.

Elsewhere, Tropical Storm Simon has formed in the eastern North Pacific and may pose a threat to the Baja Peninsula of Mexico in a few days time. It has been a very active hurricane season in this region. Only one more storm is required for the region to have produced the largest number of storms for 22 years.

Official warnings of west Pacific tropical storms are produced by the Japan Meteorological Agency and east Pacific warnings are produced by the US National Hurricane Center. The Met Office routinely supplies predictions of cyclone tracks from its global forecast model to regional meteorological centres worldwide, which are used along with guidance from other models in the production of forecasts and guidance.

Met Office StormTracker provides a mapped picture of tropical cyclones around the globe with access to track history and six-day forecast tracks for current tropical cyclones from the Met Office global forecast model and latest observed cloud cover and sea surface temperature. We also provide updates on current tropical storms via @metofficestorms on Twitter.





Severe Tropical Storm Rammasun makes landfall in the Philippines

15 07 2014

A severe tropical storm is bringing damaging winds and very high rainfall totals to the Philippines over the coming days as it heads over the island chain.

Severe Tropical Storm Rammasun (also known locally as Typhoon Glenda) has already made landfall over the largest island, Luzon, and is expected to track westward towards the capital, Manila.

It has winds of about 90 mph and gusts of up to 115 mph are forecast, but these could ease slightly as the storm moves inland.

Rammasun will also bring heavy rainfall, with up to 400mm of rain possible over the next two to three days – that’s about a third of the UK’s average rainfall for a whole year.

Legazpi in the south eastern part of Luzon had already seen 181mm of rain in just six hours early on Tuesday – this is more than twice as much as the UK would expect in the whole month of July.

Satellite image of Rammasun from 7am (UK time) this morning. Courtesy of the Naval Research Laboratory.

Satellite image of Rammasun from earlier today. Courtesy of the Naval Research Laboratory.

The rainfall could cause flooding and landslides, with the largest impact possibly reserved to the populous Manila itself (Greater Metro Manila Area).

A storm surge of up to 1 to 1.5 metres is also expected, coinciding with waves of 3 to 5 metres and spring tides. This could also add to the risk of coastal flooding as the storm passes through.

This could be the strongest tropical storm to affect the Philippines since Milenyo (also known as Typhoon Xangsane) hit the area in 2006.

The Met Office has been working in partnership with PAGASA, the Filipino national forecaster, to provide high resolution forecast modeling for the region. This can help to provide more detailed guidance and warnings on the potential impacts of Rammasun, helping the region prepare so disruption can be minimised.

There are currently no other tropical storms in either the Pacific or the North Atlantic.

Official warnings of west Pacific tropical storms are produced by the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA).

The Met Office routinely supplies predictions of cyclone tracks from its global forecast model to regional meteorological centres worldwide, which are used along with guidance from other models in the production of forecasts and guidance.

Met Office StormTracker provides a mapped picture of tropical cyclones around the globe with access to track history and six-day forecast tracks for current tropical cyclones from the Met Office global forecast model and latest observed cloud cover and sea surface temperature.

We also provide updates on current tropical storms via @metofficestorms on Twitter.








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